The feed streams to produce hydrocarbon resins are by-products of naphtha cracking and can be divided into two groups: C5 piperylene feedstock and C9 resin oil as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Origin of C5 and C9 Hydrocarbon Resin Feedstocks
Figure 2 illustrates that C5 piperylene is the basic raw material for aliphatic tackifiers and contains various monomers.
Figure 2: C5 Piperylene Hydrocarbon Resin Oil Composition
The liquid C5 feedstock can be polymerized to a hard resin using a Lewis acid catalyst and carefully selecting temperature and pressure to obtain the desired softening point and molecular weight. The structure of the polymerized resin is difficult to characterize since the various isomers of the feedstock will combine unpredictably. A representation of some of the possible structures and configurations of a C5 resin is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3: C5 Hydrocarbon Resin Oil Polymerization
C5 resins are in essence aliphatic materials. They are available in a wide range of softening points and molecular weights.
Due to their aliphatic chemical nature C5 resins find their greatest utility as tackifiers for predominantly aliphatic polymers such as natural rubber, styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymers, styrene-ethylene butylene-styrene block copolymers, amorphous polyolefins, polyethylene, butyl rubber, EPDM rubber, and petroleum waxes. They are used in the production of pressure sensitive adhesives tapes and labels, hot melt adhesives for nonwoven product assembly, modified wax compounds, hot melt road marking compounds, rubber compounding, and paint and coatings applications.
Table 1: Property Ranges of C5, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Resins
|Ring and ball softening point, °C: ||6–112 |
|Gardner color (50% in toluene): ||2–3 |
|Glass transition temperature, °C ||43–58 |
|MMAP cloud point, °C ||92–99 |
|DACP cloud point, °C: ||43–69 |
The C5, aliphatic hydrocarbon resins produced by Eastman Chemical Company are:
In North America:
In Europe, Middle East and Africa: