Eastman makes a variety of products that are used as fragrance fixatives. These include: Eastman™ Triacetin and Eastman Sustane™ SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate). For typical properties of these products, see Eastman publication CB-31.
A fragrance fixative retards the volatility of fragrance components to increase the life of a perfume. In particular the fragrance fixative should have an affinity for the more volatile fragrance molecules (top notes), so that the scent of the perfume is more consistent throughout its life. Fragrance fixatives generally have a slow evaporation rate (low vapor pressure) and a low molecular weight. Factors that impact the choice of a fixative include the diffusion of fragrance components from the fixative over time, the solubility of fragrance components in the fixative, and the chemical inertness of the fixative to fragrance components.
An oxidative stability study conducted by Eastman showed that the more unsaturated the oil, the more effective Eastman Tenox TBHQ (tertiary- butylhydroquinone) is compared to Eastman Tenox BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), and Eastman Tenox BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). Therefore, Eastman Tenox TBHQ is the antioxidant of choice for most vegetable oils.
The Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) panel have reviewed the safety of t-butyl hydroquinone. They concluded that “t-butyl hydroquinone may be safely used as a cosmetic ingredient at concentrations not to exceed 0.1 percent” (J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 10(1), 1991).
An oxidative stability test conducted at Eastman showed that Eastman Tenox™ TBHQ (tertiary-butylhydroquinone) is about equally as effective in castor oil; and is much more effective than either Eastman Tenox BHA or Eastman Tenox BHT.
Some discoloration may occur with Eastman Tenox TBHQ (tertiary-butylhydroquinone) at an alkaline pH or in the presence of proteins and sodium salts. Specifically, Eastman Tenox TBHQ forms colored complexes with amines in fatty acid/amine emulsifier systems at alkaline pH. Therefore, to prevent discoloration of Eastman Tenox TBHQ, we suggest neutralizing acids with amines to a pH of 7 or less.
The U.S. FDA has issued a tentative final monograph for over-the-counter (OTC) skin-bleaching drug products (47 Federal Register 39108, Sept. 3, 1982). Hydroquinone is included in this monograph as the only safe and effective active ingredient for these products. Under the monograph, hydroquinone may be used at levels of 1.5% – 2.0%.
It is the policy of Eastman to supply only USP Grade or European Pharma Grade hydroquinone for use in skin-lightening products.
Products containing hydroquinone for skin-lightening applications are subject to discoloration caused by oxidation. Steps to minimize the oxidation of hydroquinone include use of reducing agents in the formulation such as sodium bisulfite; maintaining cleanliness to minimize contamination of equipment and product by heavy metals such as iron, copper, silver, etc.; use of packaging materials having low oxygen permeability; and maintaining the final pH of the formulation below 7.
Hydroquinone is used in hair dyes and colors and is also found in skin fresheners.
The CTFA Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel has reviewed the safety of hydroquinone and concluded that it is safe at concentrations of 1.0% and less for aqueous cosmetics formulations designed for discontinuous brief use, followed by rinsing from the skin or hair. The application of hydroquinone as a skin lightener is considered to be a drug/cosmetics use and, therefore, is not included in the CIR review. SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate, 100%) is extremely viscous.
The viscosity of SAIB in 100% form is greater than 100,000 cP at room temperature. If your application requires use of SAIB in this form, we suggest heating it to about 70°C to reduce the viscosity before pouring. Lower viscosity versions of SAIB that contain 10% solvent are also available.
90% SAIB, 10% ethyl acetate
90% SAIB, 10% denatured ethanol
Eastman Sustane™ SAIB, food grade
100% food grade SAIB
Eastman Sustane™ SAIB-ET10, food grade
90% SAIB, food grade, 10% ethanol, food grade