<b>Feed Additive</b></br>Choline Chloride or (2-Hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride is an essential nutrient and finds its main application as a feed additive. Eastman Choline Chloride 78 Feed is produced as an aqueous solution of choline chloride. The standard grade material has a concentration of 78%, which is equivalent to 581 kg choline per ton of Eastman Choline Chloride 78 Feed. Choline is commonly classified as a vitamin. It belongs to the family of water soluble B-vitamins. It was formerly known as vitamin B4. Like other vitamins, it plays a significant role in nutrition, but its daily requirement seems to be hundreds of times greater than that of other vitamins.</br></br>Choline has three essential metabolic functions:</br></br>1) As a constituent of phospholipids, improving fat transport and cell construction;</br>2) As a precursor molecule in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, interacting in muscle control;</br>3) As a source of labile methyl groups, essential for numerous biological processes.</br></br>Choline occurs in almost all feed ingredients (see publications by the NRC); however, 95% of the choline is present as phosphatidylcholine, which only directly contributes to the formation of cell membranes. Also, choline can be synthesized in the body but usually not up to the amounts required to fully cover all metabolic needs. Therefore, extra choline is often supplemented and choline chloride salt is the common form in which choline is added to the feed.</br>Addition levels vary by species, but are also dependent on age, feed composition, environmental stress and breed. The required addition level is the difference between the requirements on the one hand and the levels of natural available choline on the other. It is further augmented with a safety margin, to cover up for variations of choline levels in natural feed ingredients.</br></br></br> Use in animal feed and drinking water is authorized in the EU, however for poultry and pigs simultaneous use in as well feed and water for drinking in which choline chloride has been added should be avoided.
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